November 9, 1998. By 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards had been built in London, England. Figure skating was introduced at the 1908 Summer Olympics and has been included at the Winter Games since 1924. In the qualitative study, further information about these five factors and the reasons behind the answers regarding motivations for physical activity have been addressed. Tumbling and trampoline exercises are also included in many U.S. competitions. In 1873, Englishman Major Walter Wingfield invented a game called Sphairistikè (Greek for "playing ball") from which modern outdoor tennis evolved. Athletics Background . Eleven participants (55%) stated that they were participating in sports more often compared to their sport activity during school years. The game of Golf is descended from a game that originated in the Kingdom of Fife on the eastern coast of Scotland in during the 15th century. Students’ daily lives are characterized by sedentary behavior (e.g., attending university classes); however, physical activity in this age group is important, because future patterns of adult health are established already at this stage of life [2]. The print, radio, television, internet, and cinema media have contributed to the explosive popularity of both professional and collegiate sports. Roman gymnasiums were mostly used to prepare their legions for the rigors of battle. Katharina Diehl, Anna Katharina Fuchs, Katharina Rathmann, Jennifer Hilger-Kolb, "Students’ Motivation for Sport Activity and Participation in University Sports: A Mixed-Methods Study", BioMed Research International, vol. (Project no. A variety of studies have been conducted to identify reasons for participating in physical activity and potential barriers to being physically active in adolescence and young adulthood [4–8]. Modern international competition has six events for men—the rings, parallel bars, horizontal bar, side or pommel-horse, long or vaulting horse, and floor (or free) exercise, and four events for women—vaulting horse, balance beam, uneven bars, and floor exercise (which is performed with musical accompaniment). Common criticisms were the sizes of the facilities and the number of attendees (S02, S03, S15; S18, and S19): “It’s just not a lot fun to share the room with one hundred other people” (S03). We conducted a factor analysis with oblimin rotation to summarize the 24 items. Billions of dollars are spent on the proliferating professional and collegiate sports industry. The skates were attached to the skater's shoes with leather straps. According to them, it feels good to “stop contemplating” (S12), to “switch off” (S13), and to “let the mind wander” (S14). Background of the study is the part of any research where in the particular topic is placed. CHAPTER 1 Introduction Background of the Study Many children are covered into sports as children by their parents, to get involved and find a passion or hobby in life. Discussion. There are also some students who spend their time to their training out of school … Our study underlines the importance of combining quantitative and qualitative research approaches, since our qualitative analysis identified additional reasons for sport participation that were not addressed by the quantitative instrument. The rules of modern ice hockey were created by Canadian James Creighton. When the lunge was added, the art of fencing was born. The first reference to golf at Scotland's most famous golf course, St Andrews, was in 1552. King, “Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?”, K. Kulavic, C. N. Hultquist, and J. R. McLester, “A comparison of motivational factors and barriers to physical activity among traditional versus nontraditional college students,”. Indoor games like chess, badminton, and table tennis enhance the concentration level of the student. So far, these questions have not been answered. Basketball was not always played on the full-sized basketball court you see today, nor were the players jumping incredible heights to perform slam dunks. Men's speed skating debuted during the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix, France. Fun was minimizing barriers to be physically active (S13, S16, and S20). monarchy, sports and pastimes throughout the area we now know as Britain were closely linked to what might be termed festive culture. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. As the immense popularity of collegiate basketball and football grew, interest in rowing waned. Physical activity among students is essential for complimenting sedentary behavior and for individuals’ future health. In addition, obesity resulting from a lack of physical activity in this age group can have adverse health consequences later in life [3]. These former studies were mainly quantitative and followed a similar procedure (i.e., using a predefined, self-reported questionnaire). Basic fencing conventions were first organized codified by French fencing master Camille Prévost in the 1880s. Whilst Physical Education is a part of the process of education that aims to improve human development and performance through physical activity and Sport is about a range of structured physical activities, the two shared close relationship. According to the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), more than 240 million people around the world play soccer on a regular basis. 2. After numerous disputes, the Fédération Internationale d’Escrime was founded in 1913 as governing body of international fencing for amateurs (both in the Olympics and in world championships) to ensure uniform enforcement of rules. In our everyday lives, there is always so much going on and it can be easy to lose sight of the big picture. As gymnastics evolved, the Greco-Roman events of weight lifting and wrestling were dropped. Factor analysis of the 24 items revealed five factors (life balance, fitness, body image, contact to others, fun; KMO=0.871; Bartlett<0.001, Table 2). The qualitative study part was also used to test the content validity—and therewith the completeness—of the item battery used in the quantitative part. Written by Timothy Sexton Paul Dunbar published his final novel in 1902 and in the process created foretold the coming of the Harlem Renaissance. Paying close attention to the following questions will help you in writing background information: 1. As anyone writing a compendium on the history of sports can tell you, there's a staggering amount of information to sift through and only so much time. Outdoor sports like football, cricket, tennis, swimming, running, etc, keeps the body and mind active and engaged. In the past, applying a mixed-methods approach has been shown to be useful since the methods and their results inform each other [14]. Modern sports evolved mainly in the West during the time of the industrial and scientific revolutions, and the demographic surge of population from the countryside to the city. The Sport of the Gods Background. Initially dismissed, the lighter court sword soon proved an effective weapon for a variety of movements impossible to achieve with earlier blades. Bare-knuckle boxing was outlawed as a criminal activity and boxing matches were regularly raided by the police. She is known for her independent films and documentaries, including one about Alexander Graham Bell. Posted: May 31, 2018 Today, barring penalties, each team has six players on the ice at a time, including the goalie, who guards the net. Sports in precolonial sub-Saharan Africa are less well known, but there are examples of canoe races and, of course, wrestling, a sport that seems to have been universal throughout Africa. A barrier to participation. The history of sports extends back to the Ancient world. We used a semistructured interview guide with open-ended questions. The United States took gold that year, and again in 1904. Regular physical activity helps to reduce girls’ risk of developing many of the chronic diseases of Published: 08 July, 2011 . By the time they reach early adolescence, 50% of sports participants have left sport. Potential improvements for USP include program maintenance during the semester break and temporal harmonization with the classes. The comparison revealed high agreement (82%). Engagement in sports activities has recently been identified as a tool for development. At the turn of the millennium, major international tournaments such as the World Cyber Games and the Electronic Sports World Cup were launched, followed by … Regarding university sports, we had four main categories. Social class and physical education in primary schools: a comparative study of physical education in two urban primary schools. This may contain the general description, and may include the broader description of the topic. However, such a procedure can be helpful to analyze content validity. In addition, some students expressed the need for more beginner courses to accommodate first-time participants (S19), expanding the sports program (S06), and increasing promotion (S10). (The penalty kick was introduced in 1891.). In the beginning, sports often involved the preparation for war or training as a hunter, which explains why so many early games involved the throwing of spears, stakes, and rocks, and sparring one-on-one with opponents. Yale challenged Harvard to its first intercollegiate boat race in 1852. Most recreational activity took place in an atmosphere of eating, drinking and gambling, and there was invariably a fair degree of sexual promiscuity, too. Boxing as a sport was introduced to the ancient Olympic Games in the 7th century BC, at which time, boxers’ hands and forearms were bound with soft leather thongs for protection. This is in line with previous research [12, 15, 17–23]. Students were aged 20–26 years (mean age = 22.8 years). In the beginning, sports often involved the preparation for war or training as a hunter, which explains why so many early games involved the throwing of spears, stakes, and rocks, and sparring one-on-one with opponents. While 36.5% stated that they are more physically active today, 45.4% indicated being less physically active. In sum, the qualitative study provided critical suggestions for the further development of quantitative items. William Morgan invented volleyball in 1895 at the Holyoke, Massachusetts, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) where he served as Director of Physical Education. Our quantitative data revealed 5 factors, which were explained in more detail during our qualitative analysis. 2018, Article ID 9524861, 7 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9524861, 1Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 7-11, 68167 Mannheim, Germany, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Technical University Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Straße 50, 44227 Dortmund, Germany. The qualitative data showed that, in general, students evaluated their university’s sports program positively: “It’s fine the way it is. List by Field. You can also find a bunch of other research paper topics within various disciplines and areas of studies. The changing social Body as a background for changes in women’s sports practice. A race between London Bridge and Chelsea Harbor has been held annually since 1715. Nineteen of the 20 students were physically active; however, 15 said that they would love to do more sports. The qualitative component identified additional reasons for sport activity that were not addressed by the item battery, which provides critical implications for developing item batteries for future research. But in the end, I started doing more sports because of it” (S07). Factor analysis with oblimin rotation; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin=0.871, Bartlett<0.001; n=602; only students being physically active answered the question on the reasons. This study investigates reasons for sport engagement among students and addresses the utilization of university sports programs (USP) by employing a mixed-methods approach. The data were independently coded by two researchers (JH and HD). We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own. Concerning the factor contact with others, qualitative interviews revealed that playing sports involves a group experience and a shared sense of achievement. Rhythmic gymnastics, a non-acrobatic performance of graceful choreographed moves incorporating the use of a ball, hoop, rope, or ribbons, have been an Olympic sport since 1984. The earliest known example of swordplay comes from a relief found in the temple of Medīnat Habu, near Luxor that was built in Egypt by Ramses III circa 1190 BC. 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